Scientific Evidence for a Worldwide Flood
A Universal Flood Did You Say?
In the late 60's and early 70's:
"Two American oceanographic vessels pulled from the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico several long, slender cores of sediment. Included in them were the shells of tiny one-celled planktonic organisms called foraminifera. While living on the surface, these organisms lock into their shells a chemical record of the temperature and salinity of the water. When they reproduce, the shells are discarded and drop to the bottom. A cross-section of that bottom... carries a record of climates that may go back more than 100 million years. Every inch of core may represent as much as 1000 years of the earth's past."1"The cores were analyzed in two separate investigations, by Cesare Emiliani of the University of Miami, and James Kennett of the University of Rhode Island and Nicholas Shackleton of Cambridge University. Both analyses indicated a dramatic change in salinity, providing compelling evidence of a vast flood of fresh water into the Gulf of Mexico. Using radiocarbon, geochemist Jerry Stripp of the University of Miami dated the flood at about 11,600 years ago." 1 To Emiliani, all the questions and arguments are minor beside the single fact that a vast amount of fresh melt water poured into the Gulf of Mexico. 'We know this,' he says, 'because the oxygen isotope ratios of the foraminifera shells show a marked temporary decrease in the salinity of the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. It clearly shows that there was a major period of flooding from 12,000 to 10,000 years ago...There was no question that there was a flood and there is no question that it was a universal flood 1. Emphasis Added
"Emiliani's findings are corroborated by geologists Kennett and Shackleton, who concluded that there was a 'massive inpouring of glacial melt water into the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River system. At the time of maximum inpouring of this water, surface salinities were...reduced by about ten percent."1
The Black Sea Speaks:
"Science... has found evidence for a massive deluge that may ... have inspired Noah's tale. About 7,500 years ago, a flood poured ten cubic miles of water a day -- 130 times more than flows over Niagara Falls - from the Mediterranean Sea into the Black Sea, abruptly turning the formerly freshwater lake into a brackish inland sea."2 Emphasis Added
"In 1993, William Ryan and Walter Pitman of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory dug up cores of sediment from the bottom of the Black sea. The cores showed that the sea's outer margins had once been dry land, indicating it had been two-thirds its present size. Furthermore, over the entire sea bottom was a thin, uniform layer of sediment that could only have been deposited during a flood. The researchers also found that within that layer saltwater mollusks appear, all from the Mediterranean and all dating from around 7600 years ago." 2 Emphasis Added
Could Somewhat Orderly / Worldwide Burial = A Worldwide Flood?
"Such a hypothesis would require assumption of a highly unlikely pattern of faunal migrations, where swarms of species of Manticoceras are followed, everywhere at the same distance and the same time interval, by swarms of species of Cheiloceras, the two waves preserving their separate identities on a staggered mass migration around the world ... without evolutionary changes and without ever becoming mixed..." Emphasis Added
"It would be easy to repeat this investigation for almost every critical zone fossil or fauna throughout the geological column for hundreds, perhaps thousands of...cases. The conclusions would be the same. In the words of Jeletsky (1956) we would have to 'invoke a miracle', if, for example, we were to assume anything but world-wide contemporaneous deposition for each of the 55 ammonite zones of the Jurassic. Not all of them occur everywhere, but wherever two or more are found in superposition they occur in the same order. 3 Arkell (1957, p. L112) 4 summarized the picture of ... Mesozoic ammonoids as follows: Emphasis Added
'Evolution is above all very uneven. Certain periods were outstandingly productive of new and verile forms which often seem to have sprung into existence from nowhere ... and to have become dominant almost simultaneously over a large part of the world... How such sudden multiple creations were brought about is a task fo the future to determine.'" 3,4 Emphasis added
Chaos and Out of Order Fossils:
"I regard the failure to find
a clear 'vector of
progress' in life's
history as the most puzzling fact of the fossil record."
"I regard the failure to find a clear 'vector of progress' in life's history as the most puzzling fact of the fossil record."
"Heretofore, we have thrown up our hands in frustration at the lack of expected pattern in life's history -- or we have sought to impose a pattern that we hoped to find on a world that does not really display it... If we can develop a...theory of mass extinction, we may finally understand why life has thwarted our expectations, and...extract an unexpected ... pattern from apparent chaos." 5 Stephen Jay Gould Emphasis added.
"One of the ironies of the evolution-creation debate is that the creationists have accepted the mistaken notion that the fossil record shows a detailed and orderly progression..." 6 David M. Raup Emphasis added.
15-20% of the earth's land surface has
3 geologic periods appearing in 'correct' consecutive order."
John Woodmorappe Emphasis added.
"Any sequence in which an older fossil occurs above a younger one is stratigraphically disordered ... disorder may be from millimeters to many meters ... (and) is produced by the physical or biogenic mixing of ... sediments ... Since these processes occur to an extent in virtually all sedimentary systems, stratigraphic disorder at some scale is probably a common feature of the fossil record." 8 Emphasis Added
extent of disorder ...is not well documented; however, the widespread occurrence of
anomalies ... suggest
that disorder should be taken seriously..." ref.
8 p. 234. W. J. Arkell. Emphasis added
"Examination of Britain's record of the Ice Age levels discloses a 'complex interbedding of drift sheets derived from different sources.' 'When we add the additional complications imposed by thin drifts, scanty interglacial deposits, and the frequent presence in fossil-bearing beds of secondary [displaced] fossils derived from the reworking of older horizons, we get a truly difficult overall problem ... All in all, British glacial stratigraphic research has encountered exceptional difficulties,' writes R. F. Flint, professor of geology at Yale University. 9,10 Immanuel Velikovsky Emphasis added
A Note about "Problematica":
"Problematica" is the
"code word" that Paleontologists use to describe
out of order fossils,
or fossils that are not easily placed, or that are "mixed" in with
one's they shouldn't be
If one were to perform an
internet search on this
word he or she may be surprised at
many web pages there are on this subject: especially considering that the word
isn't even in the Dictionary
-- at least not an English one. For more on this see: Sea-Sloths
and Out of Order Fossils.
For those seeking more information on this Worldwide Flood which almost certainly did occur, or how a Boat with Thousands of Animals onboard could possibly have survived Here is a link that may answer some of your questions. If not, feel free to email the webmaster, or to take the IQ test.
1. Warshofsky, Fred, "Noah, The Flood, the Facts," Readers Digest, Sept. 1977, pp. 132-134.
2. Svitil, Kathy A., "Forty Days and Forty Nights, More or Less," Discover, Jan. 1999, p. 69.
See also: "Is Noah story result of Black Sea flood?" by John Noble Wilford, New York Times News
Service, San Diego Union--Tribune, Wed., Jan. 13, 1999, p. E-4.
3. Teichert, Curt, "Some Biostratigraphical Concepts," Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 69,
4. Arkell, W. J.,1957, "Introduction to Mesozoic Ammonoidea," pp.81-129 in Moore, R. C., Treatise on
Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L:
Geological Society of America and Univ. of Kansas Press, 490 pp. 727, Green Forest, AZ 72638, p.239
5. Gould, Stephen Jay, "The Ediacaran Experiment," Natural History, Feb.1984, p.23. Quoted From:
"That Their Words May Be Used Against Them," Morris, Henry, 1997, Master Books, P.O. Box 727,
Green Forest, AZ 72638, p. 241.
6. Raup, David, M., "Evolution and the Fossil Record," Science, 7/17/81, p. 289
7. "The Essential Nonexistence of the Evolutionary-Uniformitarian Geologic Column" by John
Woodmorappe, Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 18 (1), June, 1981, p. 46-71; this report is
also in "Studies in Flood Geology" by J. Woodmorappe, available from ICR.
8. Cutler, Alan H., and Karl W. Plessa, "Fossils out of Sequence: Computer Simulations and Strategies for
Dealing with Stratigraphic Disorder," Palaios, June 1990, p.227. Quoted From:
"That Their Words May Be Used Against Them," Morris, Henry M., 1997, Master Books
9. Velikovsky, Immanuel, Earth In Upheaval, 1955, First Edition, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, New
York, pp. 11-12.
10. Flint, R. F., Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch, 1947, p. 377.
Copyright, 2005, 2006, Randy S. Berg; No part of this paper may be reproduced,
used, or sold for profit without
the express written consent of the author. Copies may be distributed freely for educational purposes only.
More Flood Evidences Flood Legends The Geologic Column
Effects of the Flood The Florida Everglades Questions about the Flood
Creationist Author Link Page Sea Sloths and Out of Order Fossils Home
The Age of the Earth:
Radiometric Dating and the Age of the Earth
Continental Drift and the Age of the Earth
The Big Bang Theory is in Big Trouble
Scientific Evidence for a Worldwide Flood
Evidence for a Young Earth
Six Literal Days or Six Time Periods